Tested high concentration (shock) liquid chlorine and observed the same behavior as bleach, where after only ~12 hours the yellowish liquid turned clear and emitted little odor. More research is showing chlorine concentration decays in a matter of hours, so it does not appear chlorine is likely to work as a vapor source. Further, in rinsing the reservoir I observed the lid separate from the tray, indicating the chlorine liquid and/or vapor was likely attacking/etching the bonding.
For this application, the requirement is have vapor emission for extended periods of time. Plan is to assess vapors emitted from recognized coronavirus disinfectants. The EPA published a list of 392 different "Products with Emerging Viral Pathogens AND Human Coronavirus claims for use against SARS-CoV-2." See attached link (below). Of particular note is hydrogen peroxide liquid and vapor, used in sterilization and disinfection of hospital waste and devices. Origineer Design has been working with hydrogen peroxide for some time, as a additive for controlling mold and mildew formation in Musik Tent and HumiForm reservoirs. A few cap-fulls of 3% peroxide, has been found to be very effective in preventing pathogens in Origineer Design product reservoirs and the associated filaments. These are chronicled in the Musik Tent blog at https://www.origineer.com/blog1.
To evaluate HumiForm in generating peroxide vapor, it should be relatively simple to measure humidity levels as an indicator of the emission rate. We still need lab assistance in measuring the effectiveness of vapors at these emission rates in disinfecting/sterilizing pathogens.
Observed today that the yellowish tint of the bleach has changed to completely clear, and the vapors are barely noticeable. I was not expecting such a rapid oxidizing by the surrounding air. Bleach appears to decompose too rapidly to be effective as a vapor source. Transitioning to concentrated liquid chlorine.
Testing at 100% strength Germicidal Bleach (Sodium Hypochlorite, Solution, 5% available chlorine) in shower to see how it might control mold growth.
Redesigning filament configuration to increase emission by more than 1000%, if needed, from the original single filament to 12 filaments.
The SDS (safety data sheet) for germicidal bleach, and for the disinfecting Clorox, indicates a chemical name, Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), at 5% to 10% weight. The online SDS is available at https://www.thecloroxcompany.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Clorox-Germicidal-Bleach1-Bilingual-1.pdf. In one reference, it appears the manufacturer of CAS RN, 7681-52-9, Sodium Hypochlorite is actually Spectrum Chemical Mfg. Corp, and their SDS (https://www.spectrumchemical.com/MSDS/S1669_AGHS.pdf) indicates Sodium Hypochlorite, Solution, 5% available chlorine.
In researching VOC's (volatile organic compounds) resulting from bleach, it seems Chloroform (CHCl₃) and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) are the most prevalent. I'm researching various portable monitors for testing chlorine concentration.
Have requested assistance today from The Clorox Company:
I may have developed an immediate and elegant solution for disinfecting common household items, such as mail, packages, shoes, newspapers, face masks and gloves, using Clorox Germicidal Bleach. This is done by adapting my patented cigar humidifier product to emit dilute chlorine vapor. The new product, dubbed “ChloroCloud™,” allows the concentration of chlorine vapor emitted to be modulated by varying the dilution of water and bleach. As examples, I could envision this device being placed inside a mailbox to disinfect mail, or inside a storage bin to disinfect gloves, masks, shoes and other items.
Would the Clorox Company have interest in collaborating? It would be very helpful to have Clorox’s assistance in identifying the optimum concentration that’s both safe and effective, measuring vapor emission, and providing testing. Please visit www.origineer.com/blog for additional information and give me a call if there is interest. Thank you.
Considering goals for testing once lab is identified. The infectious dose (amount required for someone to become infected) for COVID-19 does not appear to be understand at this time. It's expected to be a relatively low value due to the virus being highly contagious. Initial thoughts and concern are that we'll need to test chlorine vapors ability to diffuse/permeate into or through items being sterilized.
Some possible designed tests and related questions:
Are COVID-19 sample available? Other viruses (Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, HIV, Smallpox, Hantavirus, Flu, Dengue, Rotavirus, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-02, MERS-CoV)?
Photo below shows common items inside a storage bin with ChloroCloud device emitting dilute chlorine vapor. We are investigating labs capable of performing viral cultures to aid in investigating ChloroCloud's capabilities in disinfecting pathogens. I reached out to the Director at the Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics (CIDD) at Penn State, and also to the President of Lab Corp, about the possibility of evaluating ChloroCloud's capability in eliminating pathogens.
I've broadened the topic to include pathogens that could include viruses, bacteria, and fungi - and coined the product name, ChloroCloud™. Due to the corrosive nature of chlorine, this version uses PVC tubing and fitting. I should mentioned that my experience with HCl gas and liquid chlorides goes back decades, and I was co-inventor on U.S. Patent 5,599,425, Predecomposition of organic chlorides for silicon processing, a commercial product sold by Air Products under the trade name, Trans-LC.
Today's check of the storage bin containing the ChloroCloud device 12 hours after increasing the concentration to 1 to 1 ratio of distilled water and standard laundry grade bleach. As noted in yesterday's post, the fumes are still noticeable and reminiscent of a hotel indoor swimming pool. I could envision this ChloroCloud device being placed inside a mailbox for months between refills and disinfecting mail.
In researching how long COVID-19 may survive on a surface, there is already quite a bit of information available. Site https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/cellular-microscopic/long-can-viruses-live-on-surfaces.htm references researchers at the National Institutes of Health, who tested forms of coronavirus. They found these viruses may live on plastic and stainless steel for more than 72 hours, cardboard for more than 24 hours, and copper for less than 4 hours.
The concentration of chlorine vapor will need to be balanced versus time needed to kill pathogens. The SDS (safety data sheet) from Clorox at https://www.thecloroxcompany.com/wp-content/uploads/cloroxregular-bleach12015-06-12.pdf mentions for handling to "Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Avoid contact with skin, eyes, and clothing."
Planning to reach out to CDC, NIH and known virus experts for ways to test the effectiveness of ChloroCloud at killing pathogens. I've also identified some commercial applications I plan to contact for possible collaborations.
Damon DeBusk is a multi-patented product designer, process and quality engineer, project manager, author, and inventor of Musik Tent Instrument Humidors and HumiForm Cigar Humidifiers. He has decades of experience with HCl gas and liquid chlorides, and was co-inventor for U.S. Patent 5,599,425, Predecomposition of organic chlorides for silicon processing, a commercial product sold by Air Products under the trade name, Trans-LC, and authored numerous technical publications .